Firefighters were called to the Tap and Run in the village of Upper Broughton in Nottinghamshire at 3.23am on Saturday morning.
The roof and first floor of the building – which Broad part-owns with former teammate Harry Gurney – were significantly damaged in the blaze.
There are no reports of any injuries, but nearby residents were told to keep their windows and doors closed.
Jonathan Wilson, a station manager with Nottinghamshire Fire and Rescue, said: “We had eight appliances here and an aerial ladder platform.
“Swift action by the crews has contained the fire to the building, but the building is quite badly damaged. We are working to dampen it down.”
He added: “We are going to concentrate on putting the fire out – we are having a structural engineer have a look at the building, as well, to see if it is structurally safe. Then there will be an investigation.”
Broad is currently taking part in the Test match between England and New Zealand at Trent Bridge in Nottingham.
The 35-year-old, who plays for Nottinghamshire, is England’s second-highest Test wicket taker of all time, having picked up more than 540 wickets in 154 appearances.